I use nuts and seeds a lot in my dishes, whether that be as a garnish, in a salad or as the flour component of a cake. As such, I thought it would be handy to dive into the topic of low FODMAP nuts and seeds.
Low FODMAP nuts and seeds
Below is an alphabetically organised list of nuts and seeds and their low FODMAP thresholds. This information is the most up to date information available from Monash at the time of writing. As and when Monash update thresholds of different nuts and seeds, I will update the post.
I have also included some of my favourite low FODMAP recipes that incorporate nuts and seeds. Hopefully they will inspire you to include some in your own low FODMAP cooking.
Things to keep in mind when choosing low FODMAP nuts and seeds
Monash is an Australian institution. Although they don’t specify, I assume they use Australian cups and measures, which are larger than cups in other countries. Using the gram measures is always the most accurate.
Everyone is different and has different intolerances. If you know that a certain nut works well for you, there is absolutely no need to avoid it after the elimination phase. In fact, the whole idea is to reintroduce as many foods as possible.
This list, nor any of my recipes, are a substitute for medical advice. I am not a doctor or a dietician. I am a person who develops these recipes as I struggle with digestive issues myself. I know how hard it can be to find low FODMAP vegetarian recipes that are fun, which is why I do what I do.
What are galacto-oligosaccharides or GOS?
Many of the nuts in this list have a threshold at which they become moderate for galacto-oligosaccharides (or GOS) so it’s worth quickly discussing what this is.
Galacto-oligosaccharides are part of the oligo group of FODMAP, AKA the O in FODMAP. They are in this fun club with fructans, the other oligo. I won’t get into too much science (I am not a dietician or a doctor) but I will link this Monash article if you’d like to read more about their scientific makeup.
GOS are similar to, but separate from, fructans. Both of these groups contain sugars that humans cannot absorb, as we don’t produce an enzyme capable of breaking them down. In people with normal digestion, GOS (and fructans) move through the digestive system without too much issue regardless. In people with sensitive digestive systems, however, they can cause digestive symptoms.
Foods that are high in galacto-oligosaccharides
The main group of foods high in GOS is legumes. According to Monash, other foods include cashews and pistachios, soy milk made from whole soy beans, hummus and oat milk.
More low FODMAP resources
- Low FODMAP protein powders
- Low FODMAP fruits and recipes that use them
- Low FODMAP breakfast ideas and recipes
- 80+ low FODMAP vegetarian recipes
- 50+ low FODMAP vegan recipes
Low FODMAP thresholds for nuts and seeds
Almonds are considered low FODMAP in servings of 12g per person, or approximately 10 almonds per serve. In 24g servings or approximately 20 nuts, they become high in GOS.
Almond meal is low FODMAP in 33g serves, which is approximately 1/3 cup. In 48g servings or approximately 1/2 cup, it becomes high in GOS.
Brazil nuts are low FODMAP in 40g serves, or approximately 10 nuts. In serves of 52g or approximately 13 nuts, they become moderate for GOS.
Boiled chestnuts are low FODMAP in 168g serves, or approximately 20 chestnuts. In serves or 295g or approximately 35 boiled chestnuts, they become moderate for fructans and GOS.
Roasted chestnuts are low FODMAP in 84g serves or approximately 10 chestnuts. In serves of 134g or approximately 16 chestnuts, they become moderate for fructans and GOS.
Both black and white chia seeds are low FODMAP in 24g serves, which is approximately 2 tablespoons. 48g serves or approximately 4 tablespoons contains high amounts of fructans.
Flaxseeds are low FODMAP in 15g or serves or 1 tablespoon. In 30g serves or 2 tablespoons, they become high for GOS.
Hazelnuts are low FODMAP in 15g serves or approximately 10 nuts. They become moderate for GOS in serves of 20g or approximately 20 nuts.
Monash do not currently have an entry for hazelnut meal.
Hemp seeds are low FODMAP in 20g serves or approximately 2 tablespoons. In servings of 50g, they are moderate for GOS. This suggests there is a bit of wiggle room in what constitutes a low FODMAP serve.
Macadamias are low FODMAP in 40g serves or approximately 40 nuts. However, Monash states that only trace amounts of FODMAPs were found, and macadamias can ‘be eaten freely and according to appetite.’
Tiger nuts are not actually nuts, but tubers. Either way, they are low FODMAP in 20g serves. In 50g serves, they contain moderate amounts of fructans and GOS.
Pecans are low FODMAP in 20g serves, or approximately 10 pecan halves. In servings of 100g or approximately 40 pecan halves, they contain moderate amounts of fructans and GOS.
Peanuts are low FODMAP in 28g serves or approximately 32 nuts. However, Monash says that they contain only trace amounts of FODMAPs, and can be eaten freely and according to appetite.
I have written an extensive post on the FODMAP content of peanut butter, which you can find here.
Pumpkin seeds or pepitas are low FODMAP in 23g serves, or approximately 2 tablespoons. In 100g serves, they contain high amounts of fructans. This suggests that there is a little bit of wiggle room in what constitutes a low to moderate FODMAP serve.
Pine nuts are low FODMAP in 14g serves or approximately 1 tablespoon. In serves of 100g or 8 tablespoons, they contain high amounts of fructans. This suggests there is a bit of wiggle room with a low to moderate serve.
Poppy seeds are low FODMAP in 24g or 2 tablespoon serves. Monash doesn’t specify a moderate or high threshold for poppy seeds.
Sesame seeds are low FODMAP in 11g serves or approximately 1 tablespoon per person. In serves of 66g or approximately 6 tablespoons, they contain high amounts of fructans. This suggests there is a bit of wiggle room in what constitutes a low-medium FODMAP serve.
Sunflower seeds are low FODMAP in 6g serves or approximately 2 teaspoons. In serves of 70g they contain high amounts of fructans. This suggests that there is some wiggle room in what constitutes a low-moderate FODMAP serve.
Personally, I think it would be very helpful if Monash added a moderate threshold here. 2 teaspoons is a small serving and it feels like it muddies the water as to what constistutes a low FODMAP serve.
Walnuts are low FODMAP in 30g serves or approximately 10 nut halves. In 135g serves (approximately 35 nut halves) they contain moderate amounts of fructans. This suggests there is wiggle room in what constitutes a low FODMAP serve.
High FODMAP nuts
Cashews are high FODMAP in 15g serves, with high amounts of GOS and moderate amounts of fructans.
Pistachios contain high amounts of GOS in 10g serves, and high amounts of both GOS and fructans in 23g serves.
Recipes that use low FODMAP nuts and seeds
Roast quinoa pumpkin salad
This roasted pumpkin, quinoa, kale and feta salad uses a smattering of chopped almonds for crunch and taste. It also uses a low FODMAP quantity of (optional) raisins for a delicious flavour contrast.
Gluten free porridge
This gluten free porridge uses chia seeds to bring everything together for a thick and delicious warming breakfast. The dish uses rice flakes, a bit of butter and a low FODMAP milk, but is easily vegan with a low FODMAP plant milk.
Peanut butter cookies
These peanut butter cookies are vegan, grain free and use maple syrup as the sweetener. The added seeds are an optional but delicious way to make the cookies extra filling.
Vegan peanut butter stir fry
Sometimes, you just need a stir fry to creamy and rich and covered in peanut butter. This stir fry is for those times. It’s gluten free, vegan, and uses a hefty but appropriate amount of peanut butter.
Low FODMAP vegan mozzarella (using macadamias)
I LOVE this recipe for how close it is to regular mozzarella. It uses creamy, delicious macadamias to form the mozzarella base, and is perfect for salads and pizzas. Low FODMAP vegan heaven.
Tiger nut choc chip cookies
These grain free choc chip cookies are a recipe from my cookbook, Intolerance Friendly Kitchen. They use tiger nut flour and brown butter for a rich and delicious (yet grain free) result.
Gluten free lemon poppy seed cake
This gluten free uses a small amount of almond and poppy seeds for a perfectly textured gluten free cake or loaf. It is xanthan gum free, easy to make and even easier to eat.
Radicchio, orange and goat’s cheese salad with maple chilli walnuts
I am well and truly a radicchio girl, so this salad had to feature. It’s one of my favourite winter salads, and the maple chilli walnuts really steal the show.